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參加5月SAT考試的同學們終于于今天中午結束了戰斗。這次考試總體難度正常偏難,但相信好好準備的同學們可以發揮穩定。

對于5月的SAT而言,很多同學都是一次“試水”,所以也提醒大家,一定要離開考試之后迅速做考試總結,分析自己在考場上是否有失誤,錯誤能不能避免,其中包含了考試心態、做題順序、所帶物品等等。而對于題目和知識點本身,也要從考試中進行反思,看看哪里有所不足,努力準備下一次考試。

不過呢,對于有AP和學校課業重的同學,可以先把SAT放一放,六七月再拾起來,沖刺八月的考試。在這強烈推薦美國八月的考試,因為美國的curve比較寬松,更容易出好成績~(而且去年原題還重復了呢~)

話不多說,看看今年五月的考題吧~

十三年專注美國高端留學申請, 啄木鳥留學小助手WX:Zmneduliu 啄木鳥julia老師WX:zmnjulia77

本帖最后由 啄小助 于 2019-5-5 09:57 編輯

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小說
Mrs. Manstey’s View

老太太Mrs. Mansley閑暇時喜歡擺弄書,也喜歡擺弄花花草草。她不喜歡和別人交際,自己閑暇的日常生活就可以讓她很滿足。后來女房東告訴他,鄰居要裝修房子,修一堵高墻。而女房東對此也無可奈何。而Mrs. Mansley就會看不見遠處的風景,感覺生命都失去了意義。

文中有詞匯題,考察了idle、absorbing兩個單詞。
詢證題問題,女房東對于裝修房子的態度。
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全文:

Mrs. Manstey, in the long hours which she spent at her window, was not idle. She read a little, and knitted numberless stockings; but the view surrounded and shaped her life as the sea does a lonely island. When her rare callers came it was difficult for her to detach herself from the contemplation of the opposite window-washing, or the scrutiny of certain green points in a neighboring flower-bed which might, or might not, turn into hyacinths, while she feigned an interest in her visitor's anecdotes about some unknown grandchild. Mrs. Manstey's real friends were the denizens of the yards, the hyacinths, the magnolia, the green parrot, the maid who fed the cats, the doctor who studied late behind his mustard-colored curtains; and the confidant of her tenderer musings was the church-spire floating in the sunset.

One April day, as she sat in her usual place, with knitting cast aside and eyes fixed on the blue sky mottled with round clouds, a knock at the door announced the entrance of her landlady. Mrs. Manstey did not care for her landlady, but she submitted to her visits with ladylike resignation. To-day, however, it seemed harder than usual to turn from the blue sky and the blossoming magnolia to Mrs. Sampson's unsuggestive face, and Mrs. Manstey was conscious of a distinct effort as she did so.

"The magnolia is out earlier than usual this year, Mrs. Sampson," she remarked, yielding to a rare impulse, for she seldom alluded to the absorbing interest of her life. In the first place it was a topic not likely to appeal to her visitors and, besides, she lacked the power of expression and could not have given utterance to her feelings had she wished to.

"The what, Mrs. Manstey?" inquired the landlady, glancing about the room as if to find there the explanation of Mrs. Manstey's statement.

"The magnolia in the next yard -- in Mrs. Black's yard," Mrs. Manstey repeated.

"Is it, indeed? I didn't know there was a magnolia there," said Mrs. Sampson, carelessly. Mrs. Manstey looked at her; she did not know that there was a magnolia in the next yard!

"By the way," Mrs. Sampson continued, "speaking of Mrs. Black reminds me that the work on the extension is to begin next week."

"The what?" it was Mrs. Manstey's turn to ask.

"The extension," said Mrs. Sampson, nodding her head in the direction of the ignored magnolia. "You knew, of course, that Mrs. Black was going to build an extension to her house? Yes, ma'am. I hear it is to run right back to the end of the yard. How she can afford to build an extension in these hard times I don't see; but she always was crazy about building. She used to keep a boarding-house in Seventeenth Street, and she nearly ruined herself then by sticking out bow-windows and what not; I should have thought that would have cured her of building, but I guess it's a disease, like drink. Anyhow, the work is to begin on Monday."

Mrs. Manstey had grown pale. She always spoke slowly, so the landlady did not heed the long pause which followed. At last Mrs. Manstey said: "Do you know how high the extension will be?"

"That's the most absurd part of it. The extension is to be built right up to the roof of the main building; now, did you ever?"

"Mrs. Manstey paused again. "Won't it be a great annoyance to you, Mrs. Sampson?" she asked.

"I should say it would. But there's no help for it; if people have got a mind to build extensions there's no law to prevent 'em, that I'm aware of." Mrs. Manstey, knowing this, was silent. "There is no help for it," Mrs. Sampson repeated, "but if I am a church member, I wouldn't be so sorry if it ruined Eliza Black. Well, good-day, Mrs. Manstey; I'm glad to find you so comfortable."

So comfortable -- so comfortable! Left to herself the old woman turned once more to the window. How lovely the view was that day! The blue sky with its round clouds shed a brightness over everything; the ailanthus had put on a tinge of yellow-green, the hyacinths were budding, the magnolia flowers looked more than ever like rosettes carved in alabaster. Soon the wistaria would bloom, then the horse-chestnut; but not for her. Between her eyes and them a barrier of brick and mortar would swiftly rise; presently even the spire would disappear, and all her radiant world be blotted out.



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歷史
羅斯福演講 the Man with the Muck Rake

微信圖片_20190505095748.jpg


西奧多·羅斯福(英文:Theodore Roosevelt,1858年10月27日-1919年1月6日),美國軍事家、政治家,第26任總統。

關于耙糞記者的相關背景介紹:

所謂“耙糞記者/耙糞運動”(muckraker),也稱黑幕揭發記者/運動,是指美國19世紀末20世紀初掀起的一股新聞報道浪潮,一些記者和報刊致力于深入調查報道黑幕,揭發丑聞,對社會陰暗面進行揭示。其名稱源于西奧多·羅斯福總統的一次演講。此演講中,羅斯福將20世紀初一批致力于揭丑、暴露、煽情等報道的記者,比作英國作家約翰·班揚小說《天路歷程》中的一個反派人物,他從不仰望天空,只是手拿糞耙,埋頭打掃地上的穢物。但是被批評的揭丑記者卻不以為然,反而欣然接受這個稱號。

后來,人們便將這種新聞及報道這些新聞的記者和報刊稱為耙糞運動、耙糞記者、耙糞報刊等,就如同人們將赫斯特報刊的煽情報道成為黃色新聞一樣。

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全文:

Over a century ago Washington laid the corner stone of the Capitol in what was then little more than a tract of wooded wilderness here beside the Potomac. We now find it necessary to provide by great additional buildings for the business of the government.


This growth in the need for the housing of the government is but a proof and example of the way in which the nation has grown and the sphere of action of the national government has grown. We now administer the affairs of a nation in which the extraordinary growth of population has been outstripped by the growth of wealth in complex interests. The material problems that face us today are not such as they were in Washington's time, but the underlying facts of human nature are the same now as they were then. Under altered external form we war with the same tendencies toward evil that were evident in Washington's time, and are helped by the same tendencies for good. It is about some of these that I wish to say a word today.


In Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" you may recall the description of the Man with the Muck Rake, the man who could look no way but downward, with the muck rake in his hand; who was offered a celestial crown for his muck rake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, but continued to rake to himself the filth of the floor.


In "Pilgrim's Progress" the Man with the Muck Rake is set forth as the example of him whose vision is fixed on carnal instead of spiritual things. Yet he also typifies the man who in this life consistently refuses to see aught that is lofty, and fixes his eyes with solemn intentness only on that which is vile and debasing.


Now, it is very necessary that we should not flinch from seeing what is vile and debasing. There is filth on the floor, and it must be scraped up with the muck rake; and there are times and places where this service is the most needed of all the services that can be performed. But the man who never does anything else, who never thinks or speaks or writes, save of his feats with the muck rake, speedily becomes, not a help but one of the most potent forces for evil.


There are in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them. There should be relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil man, whether politician or business man, every evil practice, whether in politics, business, or social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform or in a book, magazine, or newspaper, with merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful.


The liar is no whit better than the thief, and if his mendacity takes the form of slander he may be worse than most thieves. It puts a premium upon knavery untruthfully to attack an honest man, or even with hysterical exaggeration to assail a bad man with untruth.


An epidemic of indiscriminate assault upon character does no good, but very great harm. The soul of every scoundrel is gladdened whenever an honest man is assailed, or even when a scoundrel is untruthfully assailed.


Now, it is easy to twist out of shape what I have just said, easy to affect to misunderstand it, and if it is slurred over in repetition not difficult really to misunderstand it. Some persons are sincerely incapable of understanding that to denounce mud slinging does not mean the endorsement of whitewashing; and both the interested individuals who need whitewashing and those others who practice mud slinging like to encourage such confusion of ideas.


One of the chief counts against those who make indiscriminate assault upon men in business or men in public life is that they invite a reaction which is sure to tell powerfully in favor of the unscrupulous scoundrel who really ought to be attacked, who ought to be exposed, who ought, if possible, to be put in the penitentiary. If Aristides is praised overmuch as just, people get tired of hearing it; and over-censure of the unjust finally and from similar reasons results in their favor.


Any excess is almost sure to invite a reaction; and, unfortunately, the reactions instead of taking the form of punishment of those guilty of the excess, is apt to take the form either of punishment of the unoffending or of giving immunity, and even strength, to offenders. The effort to make financial or political profit out of the destruction of character can only result in public calamity. Gross and reckless assaults on character, whether on the stump or in newspaper, magazine, or book, create a morbid and vicious public sentiment, and at the same time act as a profound deterrent to able men of normal sensitiveness and tend to prevent them from entering the public service at any price.


As an instance in point, I may mention that one serious difficulty encountered in getting the right type of men to dig the Panama canal is the certainty that they will be exposed, both without, and, I am sorry to say, sometimes within, Congress, to utterly reckless assaults on their character and capacity.


At the risk of repetition let me say again that my plea is not for immunity to, but for the most unsparing exposure of, the politician who betrays his trust, of the big business man who makes or spends his fortune in illegitimate or corrupt ways. There should be a resolute effort to hunt every such man out of the position he has disgraced. Expose the crime, and hunt down the criminal; but remember that even in the case of crime, if it is attacked in sensational, lurid, and untruthful fashion, the attack may do more damage to the public mind than the crime itself.


It is because I feel that there should be no rest in the endless war against the forces of evil that I ask the war be conducted with sanity as well as with resolution. The men with the muck rakes are often indispensable to the well being of society; but only if they know when to stop raking the muck, and to look upward to the celestial crown above them, to the crown of worthy endeavor. There are beautiful things above and round about them; and if they gradually grow to feel that the whole world is nothing but muck, their power of usefulness is gone.


If the whole picture is painted black there remains no hue whereby to single out the rascals for distinction from their fellows. Such painting finally induces a kind of moral color blindness; and people affected by it come to the conclusion that no man is really black, and no man really white, but they are all gray.


In other words, they neither believe in the truth of the attack, nor in the honesty of the man who is attacked; they grow as suspicious of the accusation as of the offense; it becomes well nigh hopeless to stir them either to wrath against wrongdoing or to enthusiasm for what is right; and such a mental attitude in the public gives hope to every knave, and is the despair of honest men. To assail the great and admitted evils of our political and industrial life with such crude and sweeping generalizations as to include decent men in the general condemnation means the searing of the public con science. There results a general attitude either of cynical belief in and indifference to public corruption or else of a distrustful inability to discriminate between the good and the bad. Either attitude is fraught with untold damage to the country as a whole.


The fool who has not sense to discriminate between what is good and what is bad is well nigh as dangerous as the man who does discriminate and yet chooses the bad. There is nothing more distressing to every good patriot, to every good American, than the hard, scoffing spirit which treats the allegation of dishonesty in a public man as a cause for laughter. Such laughter is worse than the crackling of thorns under a pot, for it denotes not merely the vacant mind, but the heart in which high emotions have been choked before they could grow to fruition. There is any amount of good in the world, and there never was a time when loftier and more disinterested work for the betterment of mankind was being done than now. The forces that tend for evil are great and terrible, but the forces of truth and love and courage and honesty and generosity and sympathy are also stronger than ever before. It is a foolish and timid, no less than a wicked thing, to blink the fact that the forces of evil are strong, but it is even worse to fail to take into account the strength of the forces that tell for good.


Hysterical sensationalism is the poorest weapon wherewith to fight for lasting righteousness. The men who with stern sobriety and truth assail the many evils of our time, whether in the public press, or in magazines, or in books, are the leaders and allies of all engaged in the work for social and political betterment. But if they give good reason for distrust of what they say, if they chill the ardor of those who demand truth as a primary virtue, they thereby betray the good cause and play into the hands of the very men against whom they are nominally at war.


In his Ecclesiastical Polity that fine old Elizabethan divine, Bishop Hooker, wrote:

He that goeth about to persuade a multitude that they are not so well governed as they ought to be shall never want attentive and favorable hearers, because they know the manifold defects whereunto every kind of regimen is subject, but the secret lets and difficulties, which in public proceedings are innumerable and inevitable, they have not ordinarily the judgment to consider.


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科學雙篇

第一篇:Tracey Peake, "Pigment or Bacteria? Researchers Reexamine the Idea of "color" in Fossil Feathers".

古生物學家提出,羽毛內部的結構可以表明鳥類的顏色。但是最新研究卻顯示,無法判斷這些。


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本帖最后由 啄小助 于 2019-5-5 10:03 編輯

全文:

Paleontologists studying fossilized feathers have proposed that the shapes of certain microscopic structures inside the feathers can tell us the color of ancient birds. But new research from North Carolina State University demonstrates that it is not yet possible to tell if these structures – thought to be melanosomes – are what they seem, or if they are merely the remnants of ancient bacteria.

Melanosomes are small, pigment-filled sacs located inside the cells of feathers and other pigmented tissues of vertebrates. They contain melanin, which can give feathers colors ranging from brownish-red to gray to solid black. Melanosomes are either oblong or round in shape, and the identification of these small bodies in preserved feathers has led to speculation about the physiology, habitats, coloration and lifestyles of the extinct animals, including dinosaurs, that once possessed them.

But melanosomes are not the only round and oblong microscopic structures that might show up in fossilized feathers. In fact, the microbes that drove the decomposition of the animal prior to fossilization share the same size and shape as melanosomes, and they would also be present in feathers during decay.

Alison Moyer, a Ph.D. candidate in paleontology at NC State, wanted to find out whether these structures could be definitively identified as either melanosome or microbe. Using black and brown chicken feathers – chickens are one of the closest living relatives to both dinosaurs and ancient birds – Moyer grew bacteria over them to replicate what we see in the fossil record. She used three different types of microscopy to examine the patterns of biofilm growth, and then compared those structures to melanosomes inside of chicken feathers that she had sliced open.  Finally, she compared both microbes and actual melanosomes to structures in a fossilized feather from Gansus yumenensis, an avian dinosaur that lived about 120 million years ago, and to published images of fossil “melanosomes” by others. Her findings led to more questions.

“These structures could be original to the bird, or they could be a biofilm which has grown over and degraded the feather – if the latter, they would also produce round or elongated structures that are not melanosomes,” Moyer says. “Melanosomes are embedded in keratin, which is a very tough protein, so they’re hard to see unless there’s been some degradation. But the bacteria are doing the degrading, and so that may be what we’re seeing, rather than the melanosome itself. It’s impossible to say with certainty what these structures are without more data, including fine scale chemical data.”

The research appears online in Scientific Reports. Possible next steps for Moyer include testing for the presence of keratin or bacteria within the fossils, by looking for their molecular signals.

“The technology that we have available to us as paleontologists now is amazing, and will make it much easier to test all of the hypotheses we develop about these fossils,” Moyer says. “In the meantime, perhaps we can establish some basic criteria for identifying these structures as melanosomes, such as whether they’re found within the feather’s interior, or externally.”

The research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the David and Lucille Packard foundation. The fossil feather was provided by the Gansu Geological Museum in Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

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第二篇:Sarah Fecht, "The True colors of Ancient Reptiles Revealed".

第二篇則認為,根據化學成分,化石的顏色可以體現出原石顏色。



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全文:

A study published in Nature this week has found a way to determine the color of dinosaurs and other ancient reptiles: by analyzing the dark deposits left on fossils, which the scientists says are actually pigments left over after the animal's skin decayed.

Lots of fossils, such as the ichthyosaur shown here, are outlined or shellacked with a mysterious dark deposit. For a long time, scientists couldn't be sure what the material was or where it came from. Under the microscope, the material housed tiny egg-shaped structures that looked like melanosomes—the cell organelles that secrete pigments into an animal's skin. Other scientists thought the structures might be bacteria.

By studying the molecular composition of the pigments, the scientists in this study not only concluded that the deposits are pigment remains, but also determined what those pigments were. They say that three fossilized marine reptiles they studied—a 190-million-year-old ichthyosaur, an 86-million-year-old mosasaur, and a 55-million-year-old leatherback turtle—probably had blackish skin like the modern-day leatherback turtle.

"This is the first time that we're reporting pigments, the animal's own biomolecules from reptile skin," says Johan Lindgren, a geologist at Lund University and the lead author on the new study.

Previous studies relied on a visual identification of those egg-shaped melanosomes. Lindgren's team went a step further by analyzing the chemistry of the structures and pigments in the samples. The molecule that causes black coloring, called eumelanin, had degraded over time but remained largely intact. It was enough to provide the first unequivocal evidence of pigmentation in the skin of a fossilized animal, says Maria McNamara, a paleontologist with the University of Bristol who was not involved in the study.

To identify the dark deposits, Lindgren's team fired a beam of ions at samples of the material. The ions broke up the material and sent fragments flying into a detector, which analyzed their chemical composition and confirmed that the dark deposits were eumelanin. Under the microscope, Lindgren's team showed that concentrations of eumelanin peaked in areas with the highest density of the tiny egg-shaped structures—suggesting the structures were indeed melanosomes, not bacterial cells.

Most studies up to now have tried to learn the coloration of ancient organisms by studying fossilized feathers, because feathers are tougher and more resistant to decay and their melanosomes are more densely packed than in skin. Lindgren's study opens the door to reconstruct coloration in a wider range of species, including nonfeathered dinosaurs.

That's important because an animal's color can say a lot about its behavior. Color can be used as camouflage, to signal to mates, or to flash a warning to potential aggressors. Lindgren's team hypothesizes that the black coloration helped ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs, and ancient leatherback turtles to absorb extra heat. That would be helpful if, like modern-day leatherbacks, the large reptiles ranged into the icy waters of the Arctic Circle.

The distribution of dark pigment around the fossil ichthyosaur suggested the animal was uniformly dark-colored. "That's pretty neat, because most marine animals have a dark back and a white belly," Lindgren says. "If you look at sperm whales today, they have a uniform coloration. Ichthyosaurs are also inferred deep divers, so it's an interesting similarity."

There appears to be a limit to how well scientists can reconstruct ancient coloration. Some non-melanic pigments (which can be responsible for red, yellow, and blue coloration) don't preserve as well as melanin-based pigments. Still, "the glass is half-full as opposed to half-empty," says Patrick Orr, who studies fossil preservation at University College Dublin. "We're now getting data that, a decade ago, would have been impossible."

Orr predicts that this work is just the tip of the iceberg for fossil pigmentation studies, which can now begin to link coloration patterns with different ecologies and chart how reptile color evolved over time.

Anne Schulp, who studies mosasaurs at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in the Netherlands, called the new research exciting. "As a paleontologist at a museum, I'm always trying to take our visitors back on a trip through time, and the more details we have the better the story gets. We can now do a little paint job on the marine reptiles—a paint job that's actually based on real research."

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社會科學
The passage adapted from
The Surprising Benefits of Sarcasmwen

文章以諷刺這個寫作手法入手,來介紹它的作用。以往的關于諷刺的研究驗證了諷刺的手法可以更加讓人們注重內容。但是人們也會高估自己對于諷刺的理解,人們常常會誤解諷刺。而另一些研究也表明,諷刺手法也可以幫助人們提高creative和認知。

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科學
The passage adapted from City Rabbits,
Like Humans, Live in Smaller Homes

因為生存環境和疾病等原因,歐洲國家的兔子數量在減少。研究人員發現,現在兔子也開始“城市化”,在城市,兔子的洞穴變得又小又多。這和人類接近。研究也表明,兔子喜歡小單位居住,一個是溫度原因,一個是資源有限。


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語法

語法第一篇:
Movable books: Precursor for Pop-ups
movable books是中世紀晚期眾多發明的其中一個,人們可以在書中的小窗內看到隱藏的插畫。但是這種書只是富人階層的玩具。現在科技進步,網絡發展,人們也能從互聯網中看到這種形式。

  • 考察連接詞:while;
  • 考察主謂一致,one of +動詞s


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語法第二篇:
Monopoly大富翁游戲創作者對于游戲的設想和設計上的改變。因為創作者覺得這個游戲體現了少數資本家擁有了社會大量的財富,他覺得應該傳遞不同的價值觀。

  • 考察although和but;
  • ’s用法的考察


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語法第三篇:
節能的普及,insulation成為新興產業。導致了工作機會的增多,比如商業和家用的隔熱材料安裝人員。

  • 考察了句子合并題的成分;
  • 考察了表格題,判斷趨勢,工作種類;
  • 考察了轉折的連接詞使用。


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語法第四篇:
Neither wind nor ice nor gloom of the night。文章記錄了1934年的特大颶風情況。

  • 考察了代詞單復數;
  • 考察句子并列的成分,名詞;
  • 轉折關系的連詞使用。


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